Dance Resource

Hustle - 3 Count

Timing

The basic timing is a-1-2-3.

Leader's steps generally follow the following pattern:

LF step or point with partial weight transfer       (a)
RF step                                             (1)
LF step                                             (2)
RF step                                             (3)

Follower's steps are usually as follows:

RF step with partial weight transfer                (a)
LF step                                             (1)
RF step                                             (2)
LF step                                             (3)

Most figures resolve in 3 or 6 counts, though there are some that take 4 counts (single right turn), others that can be shortened from 6 to 5 counts (double right turn), and still others that can take a variable number of counts (pivots can take 3, 5 or 7 counts for example).

Follower's Alternate Timings

The follower can use alternate timings for styling. As these are styling variations, they should not affect how the follower executes the figures that the leader is requesting, or responds to the lead in general.

The a-1-a-2-3 timing is as follows:

RF step             (a)
LF kick             (1)
LF step             (a)
RF step             (2)
LF step             (3)

The step on (1) is thus delayed until (1a).

The (a-1) can be compressed into (1) obtaining (1-a-2-3) timing as follows:

RF step             (1)
LF step             (a)
RF step             (2)
LF step             (3)

Even though this variant has fewer steps than the (a-1-a-2-3) one, I find it easier, in the sense of matching with the leader, to have an action on each of (a-1) rather than have a single step on (1) when the leader is leading a back rock involving two steps.

The a-1-2-a-3 timing is as follows:

RF step             (a)
LF kick             (1)
LF step             (2)
RF step             (a)
LF step             (3)

This variation keeps the full beat between (1) and (2).

Hesitation / Stationary Basic / Syncopated Basic

Leader's steps from double hand hold open:

Start with LF pointed forward.

LF back             (a)
rock RF             (1)
LF together         (2)
RF in place         (3)

Hesitation With Follower's Forward Rock

In this variation, the follower takes a forward step on (2) and rocks back on (3).

Follower's steps from open:

RF back small               (a)
LF forward                  (1)
RF forward & check          (2)
rock LF                     (3)

The lead is a back rock on (a), then push on (2) with the leading hand close to the leader's body. The lead can be with LH or RH. Leader should bring his hand toward himself to lead the follower's forward step on (2), unlike the swivel lead which is done close to the follower.

Hesitation With Follower's Swivels

In this variation, the follower swivels on (2) and (3).

Follower's steps from open:

RF back small                       (a)
LF forward                          (1)
RF forward/left crossed in front    (2)
LF forward/right crossed in front   (3)

The lead is a back rock on (a) followed by moving the leading hand right (to follower's left) to lead the left swivel on (2) and then moving the leading hand left (to follower's right) to lead the right swivel on (3). On (2) the leading hand should stay close to the follower to lead a swivel vs forward movement, and the leading hand should similarly stay close to the follower on (3).

The swivels may be more comfortably lead from handshake than LH connection, but I imagine both are possible.

Whip / Rotating Basic

Leader's steps:

Start with LF pointed forward.

LF together                                 (a)
RF forward                                  (1)
LF forward & rotate R 180d                  (2)
    draw RF diagonal left/back toward LF
put weight on RF                            (3)

rock LF w/partial weight transfer           (a)
rock RF                                     (1)
LF forward & rotate R 180d                  (2)
    draw RF diagonal left/back toward LF
put weight on RF                            (3)

Between 2 and 3 counts RF should be sliding toward LF. At the end of the slide put weight on RF. This isn't quite a rock. This version is apparently more correct, and its benefit is the leader stays closer to the follower throughout the figure while also remaining properly in the slot. Importantly, RF should be slid on 3 count after hte leader completes the 180d of rotation, rather than be concurrent with rotation.

The other way of doing this is to actually move RF, which is more noticeable when doing turns when the leader gets out of follower's way.

Follower's steps:

Start with RF pointed forward.

RF back                                     (a)
LF forward                                  (1)
RF forward & rotate R 180d                  (2)
LF together                                 (3)

RF back                                     (a)
LF forward                                  (1)
RF forward & rotate R 180d                  (2)
LF together                                 (3)

Cross Hand Whip

Leader's RH is on top.

Leader's RH is what puts the follower into her back rock, hence having this hand be dominant by it being on top is quite helpful.

Leader can bring LH to right hip to create wind in the follower in the middle of the whip.

Leader can go from regular whip to cross hand whip by changing hands on (3) count (from LH to RH, then ask for follower's RH with LH) when he draws LH toward himself.

To Hip Check

This starts out as a whip with LH hold, but as the partners are changing positions the leader releases LH and catches the follower's hip with RH. This is followed by follower's 1.5 left which is led with the hip pull.

Follower's UAT Left / Right Side Pass

From open with LH hold, lead is raise LH in front of follower (see UATs section in Rhythm Technique) between 1 and 2 counts. Follower turns on 2 count.

Follower's Double UAT Left

Follower's steps:

RF back small       (a)
LF forward          (1)
RF forward facing L (2)
    & rotate L 90d
rotate L 270d & LF forward  (3)

rotate L 90d & RF back small        (a)
RF forward                          (1)

The turn technically finishes on the a-1 of the following step.

All of the steps should be in the track, i.e. in a single line.

Leader's UAT Left

Leader's UAT Left With LH Lead

From open with LH hold, lead is raise LH in front of leader which is also left of follower (see UATs section in Rhythm Techiqiue) between (1) and (2). Leader turns on (2).

Leader's UAT Left With RH Lead

From open with both hand hold, lead is raise RH in front of leader which is also left of follower. LH is kept low and moved to leader's right hip to lead forward movement of the follower. Leader turns on (2).

Both UAT Left

Follower and leader turn in the same measure. Both are turning left. Leader turns (slightly) after the follower because leader needs to be behind the follower for his turn. Leader will probably also travel toward the follower more on the 2 count compared to follower's UAT left.

Follower's UAT Right / Left Side Pass

This is a left side pass from leader's perspective, vs UAT left which is a right side pass. It is also a half right turn for the follower, vs the single right described below which is actually 1.5 turns.

From open with RH hold, lead is raise RH in front of follower but guide the follower to pass on the left. Follower turns on 3 count. Easier to do after leader's UAT right as followers seem to expect to turn themselves in that situation.

Follower's Single Right

Technically the follower executes 1.5 right turns in this figure. The single right takes 4 counts, as a result of which is also known as a 4 count right turn.

The figure is easiest to start in both hand hold, then use LH to lead forward travel on (2), then use RH to lead follower's rotation right. The figure can also be led with LH but it is a bit more difficult. If leading with RH, finishing position is side by side open. If leading with LH, finishing position is face to face open.

Follower's steps, from open:

RF back rock                                (a-1)
RF forward                                  (2)
rotate R 90d & LF left                      (3)
rotate R 180d & RF right                    (a)
rotate R 180d & LF left & rotate R 90d      (4)

(into back rock, (a-1))

Follower's Double Right

Follower's steps:

RF back small                       (a)
LF forward                          (1)
    & wind left
RF forward pointing slightly R
    & rotate R 90d                  (2)
LF left tiny & rotate R 180d        (3)

RF forward tiny & rotate R 180d     (a)
LF left tiny & rotate R 180d    (4)
RF right tiny & rotate R 180d   (5)
rotate R 90d & LF together      (6)

All of the rotating steps must be very small, otherwise total distance traveled will be excessive.

From leader's perspective, the figure can be done in a couple of different ways.

From Open, LH Hold

If starting with LH hold in open position the finishing position will be also open with LH hold.

The lead on (1) is forward of the follower, rotational lead should start once the follower steps forward on (2). When leading with LH the lead is around the follower away from the leader, in a sense the leading hand is rear of the follower.

Leader's footwork:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left out of the slot & rotate R 90d      (2)
RF tap together                             (3)

RF forward/right diagonal into the slot     (4)
LF forward                                  (5)
RF forward                                  (6)

From Open, Both Hold

If starting with both hold in open, the finishing position will be side by side open with RH connection. Both hands are needed to start because the back rock is led with LH while the turn itself is led with RH (to attain side by side open, LH or handshake hold does not work with side by side open finish).

On (1), both of the leader's hands should be moving toward his right hip to lead follower's forward step on (2). Rotational lead should start once the follower stepped on (2).

Leader's footwork:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left out of the slot & rotate R 90d      (2)
RF tap together                             (3)

RF right                                    (4)
LF together                                 (5)
RF right                                    (6)

When the finishing position is a side by side open, the leader executes a chasse on (4-5). A chasse means one foot closes to the other foot, meaning on (5) leader should not cross feet.

From Open, Handshake Hold

If starting with handshake hold, the finishing position will be also open with handshake hold.

On (1) the leading hand should be forward of the follower to lead the forward step on (2), rotational lead should start once the follower steps on (2).

Leader's footwork is the same as that for LH hold:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left out of the slot & rotate R 90d      (2)
RF tap together                             (3)

RF forward/right diagonal into the slot     (4)
LF forward                                  (5)
RF forward                                  (6)

In 5 Counts

The double right turn can be executed in 5 counts instead of the 6 counts it normally takes. This is done by taking the (5-6) steps on (a-5), for the resulting timing of (a-1-2-3-a-4-a-5).

The 5 count turn is lead with a quicker stir of the pot on (4) with the leading hand, thus speeding up follower's rotation to take two quick counts instead of taking two slow counts.

To Open Hammerlock

From double hand hold, the leader starts follower's right turn with LH lead and as the follower executes her first rotation, leader places the follower's LH in hammerlock position. The follower should keep her hand in that position until moved elsewhere by the leader. As the follower continues rotating right, the leader traces her waist and makes brief contact with her LH but does not establish connection (this happens after the first of the two right turns). The follower continues rotating right, after the second rotation the leader connects to the follower's LH still in hammerlock position and stops the follower when she has completed 2.5 turns and is facing in the opposite direction from the starting one. At this point the partners should be in open hammerlock position.

The other important component of this figure is the leader transitioning from one rails to the opposite rail, so that at the end of the turn the leader is left of the follower from his perspective. This transition happens after the follower passes the leader in her first turn, then the leader keeps pace with the follower while changing rails.

Footwork for the leader is the same as for a LH lead or handshake version of the double right which ends in face to face open:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left out of the slot & rotate R 90d      (2)
RF tap together                             (3)

RF forward/right diagonal into the slot     (4)
LF forward                                  (5)
RF forward                                  (6)

Follower's Triple Right

In syncopated timing this figure takes 8 counts.

Leader's UAT Right / Leader's Inside Turn

From open with RH hold, lead is raise RH in front of leader which offsets it left substantially from where it is for, say, whip/rotating basic. Leader turns on 3 count.

Followers seem to expect their turn immediately afterwards, therefore it is good to follow leader's UAT right with follower's UAT right.

Leader's Left

With Back Hand Change

From open in LH hold to open in LH hold.

With Waist Slide / Waist Roll

From open in LH hold to open in handshake hold.

Open To Side By Side Open

From open position with both hand hold, leader begins a whip but releases LH in the middle and moves to the rail of the slot. The follower opens into side by side position.

With Hook Behind

A variation of this step is for the leader to hook RF behind LF on (1), thus moving out of the slot on (1) rather than on (2) as would otherwise happen.

Illusion Turn

This starts from cross hand hold with RH on top, as in cross hand whip.

Leader's steps:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
LF slightly left & both hands right/up diagonally &
    start follower's right turn                     (2)
rotate R 90d & continue turning follower

bring hands down & LF back rock                     (a-1)

In the turn itself, RH maintains connection throughout. LH goes around follower's right wrist and catches follower's LH again immediately afterwards.

The follower is responsible for bringing her LH to right wrist for the leader to release and reconnect LH in the right place.

The leader is responsible 1) providing directional lead on (2) and 2) raising both hands high enough to have both of the follower's hands clear her head through the turn.

After bringing hands down, LH is on top. Execute drop & catch to switch to cross hand hold with RH on top.

Double Hand Hold Bridge

From double hand hold, leader executes right side pass (turning 1/4 right) moving to the rail of the slot. The follower executes a left half turn and moves from one end of the slot to the other.

In the middle, the partners are in perpendicular position with inverted double hand hold. Follower is to the right of the leader. The leader executes a side break since he is on the rail.

The simple exit is the reverse of the entry - the follower executes a right half turn to come back to her original position, the leader executes a quarter left turn to come back into the slot.

Reverse Turn

This is a left side pass executed from double hand hold.

Starting from open, leader rotates L 90d, follower rotates L 180d. Leader finishes on the rail, follower at the other end of the slot - reverse perpendicular position. Finishing hand hold is cross upside down.

Upside Down Cross Pass Exit

This is the inverse of reverse turn, with partners returning to the open position that they started reverse turn from. The exit itself is a right side pass from reverse perpendicular to open.

Upside Down Cross Left Turn Exit

From reverse perpendicular position with upside down cross hand hold, follower executes 1.5 left turns to RH catch in perpendicular position. From RH catch the leader can execute a throwout to open or XBL to closed.

Waist Wrap

From side by side open with RH to LH connection, leader's steps:

LF left point                                               (a)
RH step in place & RH j-hook to bring follower left & wrap  (1)
LF right crossed in front & rotate L 180d                   (2)
RF together & RH catch follower                             (3)

Finishing position is perpendicular with RH connection. Next figure can be throwout, right turn unwrap into open, or XBL into closed.

Cuddle

Cuddle is follower's turn from face to face open executed with leader holding both follower's hands. The turn can be left or right.

In cuddle position, leader's LH is in front of follower on her left side holding her RH, leader's RH holding follower's LH on her right side. Follower's hands should be below her elbows, but it is the leader's job to keep follower's hands low.

The partners should be angled into the slot at about 45d, similarly to shadow position. Some teach cuddle with both partners in the slot facing one end of the slot, but angled position is more correct.

When going into cuddle, the follower should stay in the slot and the leader should move left slightly, then angle 45d into the slot.

In the cuddle, leader should point diagonally left/forward and follower performs a back rock. The point is in opposition to back rock; leader performing a back rock is not correct as doing so forgoes the opposition.

Left Into Cuddle

Follower's left turn into cuddle is led with LH, and the turn starts on (1). Because the turn starts on (1), the follower does not move much forward and as a result the leader does not need to move much either to receive the follower into the cuddle position.

Right Into Cuddle

Follower's right turn into cuddle is led with RH, and the turn starts on (2). Because the turn starts on (2), the follower travels more. As a result the leader needs to move off the slot somewhat to make room for the follower, similar to the shadow position.

It is also possible for both partners to rotate to face a slot rail, which involves the follower going past the leader to his right and the leader executing 90d of rotation right.

This figure is very similar to neck wrap, and some instructors say that the neck wrap is the correct way of executing a "right into cuddle", however with both partners being perpendicular to the slot I think the cuddle position can work.

Cuddle UAT Right Exit

This is the inverse of follower's left turn into cuddle entry. Lead is with LH.

Neck Wrap

This is folower's right turn from face to face open to perpendicular position executed with leader holding both follower's hands, and wrapping RH (which holds follower's LH) around follower's neck.

Unlike cuddle and sweetheart in which partners face the same direction, neck wrap's partner position is perpendicular. The position is similar to closed with leader being on the rail of a slot and follower being in the slot, except the hand hold is different.

When executing the neck wrap, keeping RH above shoulders allows for a smooth stop of the follower in the perpendicular position, where simply executing a right turn into full cuddle and dropping RH to follower's shoulder would involve a more abrupt stop.

Neck Wrap Underarm Exit

Leader raises LH to lead the exit and releases RH. The follower executes a right turn to exit to LH hold face to face open. Optionally leader can rotate the follower right with RH on follower's left shoulder to provide additional exit lead.

Neck Wrap Double Handhold Exit

Starts out as a neck wrap, however leader maintains both hand connection during the exit. The exit is to a face to face open with a twisted double hand hold. Next movement is follower's 1.5 left turns which can go into perpendicular catch with RH only or maintain both handhold until the throwout.

Neck Wrap RH Exit

Similar to sweetheart hand drop exit, leader releases LH and allows the follower to unwind through a right turn while maintaining RH connection. Ending position is perpendicular with RH hold.

Sweetheart

Sweetheart is follower's left turn executed from handshake hold.

In sweetheart position, leader's palms are horizontal and follower's palms are vertical.

Leader can maintain RH connection throughout and then connect LH when follower is in sweetheart position. The alternative is releasing RH thus giving the follower a free turn and catching her with LH, this yields the shadow position and then RH hold is optional through the remainder of the move.

Finishing position is leader's LH left of follower, leader's RH resting on follower's right shoulder, follower is slightly in front and to the right side of the leader.

In the sweetheart, leader is supposed to execute a side point, to be in opposition to the follower. I find it easier to execute a back rock for the purposes of moving with the follower.

Volleyball Into Sweetheart

Instead of starting in handshake hold, leader can start with LH hold and execute a volleyball serve motion with RH to obtain what is effectively a handshake hold and immediately start rotating the follower into the sweetheart.

Traveling Sweetheart - Left/Right

Leader's steps:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
    & wind follower R slightly to moderately
LF in place                                 (2)
    & guide follower forward
RF in place                                 (3)
    & guide follower left with right wrist vs follower's right shoulder
    & catch follower with left wrist

LF back rock                                (a-4)
    & wind follower R slightly
LF in place                                 (5)
    & guide follower right
RF in place                                 (6)
    & catch follower with right wrist

The very first "and" when the follower is on the right can have a significant wind with follower opening up to 45d, but this requires the leader to lead the wind and the follower to execute it.

The middle "and" can have a slight wind.

Follower is facing a point in front of leader when she is at the extremes of her travel, meaning on the 3 count follower is angled right and on 6 count she is angled left, with leader's direction being fixed and taken as straight.

Note that the follower rotates on the side step opposite the direction of travel (when traveling left the rotation is right), and the traveling step is on 3 and 5 counts.

Rotating Sweetheart

This is the left/right traveling sweetheart with additional half turns on one or either end, such that the partnership rotates 180d every 3 or 6 counts.

Traveling Sweetheart - Follower's UAT Left

Starts with follower on the left of leader.

Lead is LH up on (1-2), the follower then performs 1.5 left turns instead of 1/2 left turn. Leader's steps are otherwise the same.

Similarly to how a standard 1.5 left turn for the follower is finishing on (a-1) of the next step, when the 1.5 left turn is executed in the traveling sweetheart the follower is still rotating on the following (a-1) when she is on the leader's right.

Traveling Sweetheart - Follower's Free Left

This is similar to the follower's UAT left in sweetheart except it is a free turn.

In order for the free turn to work, the follower must keep her hands up above her shoulders in the sweetheart position so that the leader can stop her rotation at the right time and reconnect. Followers who are not keeping their hands up are best led into UAT lefts.

From LH Hold

From LH to RH single hand hold, initial lead is LH toward leader's center at waist height immediately followed by LH to RH change and RH up to lead follower's right turn.

In sweetheart leader's LH holds follower's LH in front of leader, leader's RH holds follower's RH just above follower's shoulder.

Exit would be a follower's left turn into sendout.

Sweetheart To Open - LH Release

Leader releases LH on (a-1) and pushes LH away slightly as he does so. The follower then rotates right 180d to end up in face to face open position.

Sweetheart To Closed - Hammerlock Exit

Leader brings follower's LH into hammerlock position on (a-1) while simultaneously rotating the follower right to be perpendicular to the leader and facing backward in the slot from ordinary closed position. On (2-3) the follower exits hammerlock with a left turn (which is led by the leader on (2)). On (a-4) the follower performs the last half of the 1.5 left turn and leader reconnects with RH on follower's back into closed position with RH connection only.

Perpendicular Hammerlock / Right Side Hammerlock

This is the hammerlock with follower right of the leader, in the perpendicular position. Leader's RH holds follower's LH in hammerlock position.

Reverse Perpendicular Hammerlock / Left Side Hammerlock

This is the hammerlock with follower left of the leader, in the reverse perpendicular position. Leader's LH holds follower's RH in hammerlock position.

This position is also called "hammerlock with left hand".

Reverse Perpendicular Hammerlock Follower's Left Exit

Follower executes 1.5 left turns into perpendicular catch. Leader stays in place.

Reverse Perpendicular Hammerlock Both Left Exit

Follower executes 1.5 left turns into perpendicular catch, like in follower's left exit. On (2-3) the leader also executes a left turn.

Leader's steps, from reverse hammerlock:

LF left tap                                         (a-1)
lead follower's left & LF crossed behind RF         (2)
rotate L 360d & RF in place & RH catch follower     (3)

Leader's turn starts just after (2). It seems that sometimes the turn can start after the follower is turning, and alternatively the leader's turn can be used to concurrently lead the follower into her turn.

The cross behind on (2) is important in order for the leader to not run into the follower's track, and thus the follower.

Followers who do not exit hammerlock in a straight line tend to wander off and require emergency action on the leader's part to catch.

Perpendicular Hammerlock To Open Hammerlock

From perpendicular position with hammerlock and both hand hold, LH lead follower's half right, maintaining both hand hold, to finish in open hammerlock with both hand hold.

Open Hammerlock

Generally an unqualified "hammerlock" refers to this position. I call it "open hammerlock" for clarity, because frequently the perpendicular hammerlocks are also simply called hammerlocks.

From open in double hand hold, leader's steps:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left & lead follower's right turn        (2)
rotate R 180d & RF together                 (3)

In hammerlock position, partners are in the center of the slot side by side, facing opposite directions from starting ones (both leader and follower execute a half turn right). Follower is right of the leader.

In hammerlock, the follower still executes a back rock on (a-1) which should be led.

Open Hammerlock UAT Left Exit

From open hammerlock, the leader leads follower's 1.5 left while maintaining both handhold. Finishing position is perpendicular catch with both hand hold.

Leader's Hammerlock / Half Pass

From open, leader's hammerlock starts as a back hand change but the leader stops on the first rails of the slot, facing the rail, and asks for the follower's LH in that position. Follower is behind the leader to his left facing the rail as well.

Leader's steps from open:

LF back rock                                                        (a-1)
LF left & rotate L 90d &
    LH back hand change to RH &
    LH stretch left/forward slightly to ask for follower's LH       (2)
RF together & establish LH connection                               (3)

Next figure can be shadow.

Leader's Hammerlock Comb Exit

From leader's hammerlock, LH leads follower's left turn and continues over leader's head to his right shoulder. Finishing position is closed with RH hold.

Leader's Hammerlock To Shadow

This conceptually is similar to open to shadow, with leader leading follower turn into shadow position.

Just like in open to shadow transition, the follower goes to where the leader starts leading the transition, hence the leader needs to move during the figure to make room for the follower.

Leader's steps, from leader's hammerlock:

LF back rock (?)
LF back small
RF together

Cross Body Lead

Initial position is partners facing each other, shoulders parallel. The slot runs left to right between partners.

Leader's steps:

Start with RF pointed right, weight is on LF. On preceding 8 count shift weight to RF. This is a full count for weight shift (not "and").

put weight on RF, follower rotates R 90d to be in the slot    (8)

LF point left & partial weight shift & wind follower          (a)
put weight on RF & RH push follower right to left across      (1)
LF forward small between follower's feet & rotate L 90d       (2)
rotate L 90d & RF right & catch follower with RH              (3)

Leader's LF step on 2 count should behind follower's LF.

Follower's steps:

RF back                            (a)
LF forward                         (1)
RF forward & rotate R 180d         (2)
LF together                        (3)

With Follower's Left Turn

Lead is raise LH between 1 and 2 counts. Follower turns starting with 2 count.

I find it easiest to reconnect if the leader is tracing the follower's waist as she is turning, though release and reconnect is also an option.

Ending position is XBL closed.

With Shoulder Lead Left Turn

This is very similar to cross body lead with follower's left except the turn is led with LH pulling the follower's right shoulder to the left. In order to do this the figure should start in perpendicular position with RH hold only, rather than full closed. If the previous figure ended in closed position with both hand hold it is helpful to release LH at the beginning of this figure, otherwise the follower might hold on to leader's LH making the shoulder lead too late.

With Hip Lead Left Turn

This is just like the shoulder lead left but the lead is done on follower's right hip instead of her right shoulder. As with the shoulder lead turn, LH should disconnect at the beginning of the figure to prevent follower clutching it when it needs to be free for the turn lead.

Throwout / Closed To Open

Starting position is leader is in the middle of the slot perpendicular to the slot, follower is in the slot facing the slot.

Leader's steps:

LF point L & wind follower                               (a)
RF in place & push follower with RH right to left        (1)
rotate L 90d & LF forward small left of follower         (2)
LF back                                                  (3)

Leader's step on 2 count moves in the slot with the follower, then on 3 count leader steps back to create separation.

The lead is primarily with leader's right wrist (as opposed to LH or fingers of RH).

Throwout With Back Hand Change

On (3), the leader executes a 270d right turn with back hand change to face the follower.

Throwout With Leader's UAT Left

The leader crosses behind with LF on (2) and pivots on (3) for a total of 1.25 turns left.

Throwout With Follower's UAT Right

While a follower's left turn from closed position can end in closed position, and is thus a variation of cross body lead, a right turn from closed position normally ends in open position and is therefore a variation of throwout.

The lead for the figure should be directional first to make the follower step forward on (1), followed by right turn lead with LH. Compared to a normal throwout which can be led entirely with RH, throwout with UAT right requires LH lead for the turn.

To Hip Check

This is similar to whip to hip check but from closed position. As the leader executes the throwout he moves forward with the follower and catches her on the hip with RH, then pulls the hip to lead follower's 1.5 left.

Return / Open To Closed

From open position, leader's steps:

rock LF                             (a)
RF in place & rotate R 90d          (1)
LF back &                           (2)
    raise RH to put follower's hand on leader's right shoulder (*)
RF together                         (3)

Leader needs to get out of follower's way as the follower travels through the slot. Leader stops in the middle of the slot facing 90d to slot direction.

Variations pertain to how follower's left arm gets into the closed position:

J-Hook Return

J-hook return - similar to swing, this also winds the follower somewhat left before getting her into the right turn at the end of her step.

RH Place Return

Leader's RH to leader's right shoulder, leader puts the follower's hand directly where it needs to be.

Comb Return / Overhead Hand Change

Leader's RH over leader's head.

Fake Comb Return

Like comb except the leader keeps hold of follower's RH over his head and does another XBL or something else (see hustle combinations page).

Open To Closed With Leader's Waist Wrap

Open To XBL With Comb

From open position, cross hand hold, (leader's) LH on top, leader's steps:

LF back rock                                (a-1)
LF left to move out of follower's track &
  draw RH to right hip & move LH up         (2)
RH rotate follower L &
  LH comb while in cross body position &    (3)
  catch follower's waist with RH

The ending is similar to a wrap ending.

Slingshot

This is a return from open to closed followed by follower's UAT from closed to open.

From open position, LH connection, leader's steps:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
(j-hook return:)
LF in place & LH lead j-hook return                 (2)
rotate R 90d & RF forward slightly & rotate R 45d   (3)
    & RH connect with follower's back

LF back rock                                        (a-4)
    (angled 45d into the slot)
LF together & LH lead right side pass               (5)
rotate R 180d & RF together                         (6)

At the end of the first measure, leader is angled 45d to the follower. Back rock on (a-4) is also diagonal like this.

Follower's footwork is half right turn followed by half left turn.

With Leader's Back Hand Change

This is used to get into handshake hold out of the slingshot.

The exit becomes, leader's steps:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
    (angled 45d into the slot)
LF together & LH lead right side pass               (2)
rotate R 540d & back hand change to handshake &
RF together                                         (3)

The leader has 1.5 turns in one count which is rather difficult to pull off, but is the theoretical goal. 360d of rotation is easier to attain, though this ends with leader facing away from follower and on the subsequent (a) the leader can rotate another 90d to face sideways to the follower which isn't too bad.

With Leader's UAT Left

Similarly to how the leader can execute his UAT left after leading the follower's UAT left, when performing a slingshot the leader can add a UAT left for himself to the figure.

Slingshot To Side By Side

The first half of this figure is the same as in a regular slingshot, bringing the follower from open to closed. The second half resembles latin hustle entry - the follower turns half left, the leader stays in place, thus arriving in side by side position with follower on the right.

Leader's steps from open with LH connection:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
(j-hook return:)
LF in place & LH lead j-hook return                 (2)
rotate R 90d & RF forward slightly & rotate R 45d   (3)
    & RH connect with follower's back

LF back rock                                        (a-4)
    (angled 45d into the slot)
LF together & LH lead UAT left                      (5)
RF together                                         (6)

Open To Shadow

From LH hold open, leader's steps:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
LF left & pull LH diagonally toward right hip       (2)
RF together & rotate R 45d & LH j-hook &
    push diagonally right & out &                   (3)
    let go LH, catch follower's LH with LH

In shadow position, both partners are angled 45d or slightly less from the slot, hence the leader's rotation R on (2).

On (2) the leader needs to move left to get out of the follower's way. In shadow position the follower is in the slot (but angled), the leader is left of the slot also angled.

On (2) the leader should not be moving forward with LF at all, otherwise he will pass the follower on her way to shadow position. The step on (2) should be strictly to the side.

There is a hand change for the follower from RH to LH on (3). Leader leads this is a similar fashion to free spin, by pushing follower's RH away and letting go of it.

Leader's LH at the end is in front of follower holding follower's LH, leader's RH is either on follower's R shoulder blade on her back or up & sideways out.

Assuming the follower knows what the shadow position is, the leader should be able to go from open to shadow with LH connection only. In order for this to work he must step left on (2) to make room for the follower, otherwise the follower will run into the leader on (3). With less experienced followers or when learning this figure the leader can also use RH to stop the follower's rotation on (3), but with correct execution on both partners' parts the RH is not necessary.

If both partners are executing shadow correctly, they will both have their right arms free, stretched up and to the side, parallel to each other, on (3). This is a photo moment where both partners can hold for a moment.

Handshake Into Shadow

Partner positioning is exactly the same as with (open to shadow)[#shadow]. The difference is, instead of starting with LH hold and releasing LH to grab RH with LH, if starting in handshake LH is already free and it just needs to grab RH.

Leader's RH will draw a large circle upward on (2-3) to rotate the follower.

Volleyball Into Shadow

This is starting with LH hold, switching into handshake on (2) via the volleyball move and continuing volleyball to bring the follower into shadow.

Leader's Hammerlock To Shadow

From leader's hammerlock, bring the follower around into shadow position.

Shadow Left Turn Exit

The follower executes 1.5 left turns from shadow.

This is lead with RH rotating the follower left via her shoulder.

If the leader maintains LH connection, the turn will be a UAT. If the leader releases LH, the turn will be a free turn.

Finishing position can be open with LH connection (only if the leader maintained LH connection throughout) or perpendicular with RH hold (this can be achieved in both UAT and free turn versions).

Shadow UAT Left Exit

Shadow Double Left Turn Exit

This is like the single left turn exit but the leader leads an additional left turn with LH wrist rotation when the follower is at the end of the first left turn.

If the leader maintains LH connection, the turn will be a UAT. If the leader releases LH, the turn will be a free turn.

Finishing position can be open with LH connection (only if the leader maintained LH connection throughout) or perpendicular with RH hold (this can be achieved in both UAT and free turn versions).

Shadow LH Wrap Exit

Shadow Comb Exit

From shadow, leader brings follower's LH up as in UAT exit, but then places follower's hand on his left shoulder. As this is happening the leader is executing XBL movement to change sides of the slot, follower executes a half left.

Shadow Hammerlock Exit

This is very similar to sweetheart hammerlock exit. In both figures the movement is led with LH.

Shadow Reverse Perpendicular Catch Exit

This is similar to hammerlock exit but instead of executing a hammerlock, the leader executes a left side (reverse perpendicular) catch.

Face To Face Open To Side By Side Open

Side by side open is led with leader's RH, thus the starting position must be double hand hold face to face open.

The movement is similar to open to XBL, except leader does not catch follower but continues to open her to his right with RH.

Leader's steps, from double hand hold open:

(leader in slot:)
LF back                                             (a)
RF forward/left                                     (1)
(leader on rail:)
LF in place & rotate R 90d &                        (2)
    both hands move to right pants pocket
RF right & RH lead right into follower's open       (3)

The next step for the leader begins with a side rock (left). Follower technically finishes this step on the a-1 of the next step when she opens.

With Follower's UAT Right

Leader's steps, from double hand hold open:

(leader in slot:)
LF back                                             (a)
RF forward/left                                     (1)
(leader on rail:)
LF in place & rotate R 90d &                        (2)
    both hands move to right pants pocket
RF right & disconnect LH & RH up to lead
    follower's UAT right                            (3)

LF point L & RH continue leading follower's UAT     (a)
RF in place & RH continue leading follower's UAT    (4)
LF in place & RH continue leading follower's UAT    (5)
RF in place & RH down &
  RH maintain tone to stop follower's rotation      (6)

It is important for the hand lead to first indicate direction of travel (on leader's right side, this happens on (2)) and then the turn (right, this happens from (3) onward). The initial lead is RH and LH both move toward leader's right waist, both hands are staying down. On (3) LH disconnects and RH goes up to initiate follower's UAT right.

Face To Face Open To Side By Side Open Via Follower's 6 Count Turn

From double hand hold open, leader's steps:

LF back                     (a)
RF back (?)                 (1)
    & rotate R 90d
    & LH lead follower's left turn
LF in place-ish             (2)
RF right small              (3)
LF together                 (4)
RF right                    (5)
rotate R 360d               (a)
LF tap together             (6)

(in side by side open, follower on R)
(into LF side rock)

Leader's turn on 5a count is optional.

Follower is turning from 2 to 6 counts. Follower's steps:

RF back small                                       (a)
LF forward                                          (1)
RF forward facing L & rotate L 90d                  (2)

rotate L 180d & LF left facing L                    (3)
rotate L 180d & RF right facing R                   (4)
rotate L 180d & LF left facing L                    (5)
rotate L 180d & RF together crossed in front of LF  (6)

(follower finishes on the rail, side by side with leader)

Side By Side Open To XBL

Leader's steps, from side by side open with RH connection:

LF left                                             (a)
    & lead follower's RF rock R (RH push R)
RF right & lead follower's L turn with RH           (1*)
LF in slot behind follower & rotate L 180d &        (2)
    catch follower with RH
RH right & finish collecting follower               (3)

On the 1 count (step marked *), leader needs to move right to be able to place LF behind follower on the 2 count, as partners are farther apart in the side by side open vs standard XBL position.

Leaders should be tracing follower's waist through 2 count, as starting the catch on 3 count is too late and unlikely to work.

Ending connection is leader's RH only in XBL position. Next step can be throwout to face to face open or XBL. If going into closed XBL, leader's LH can reconnect through the XBL following the open to XBL step.

Side By Side Open To Wrap

Leader's steps, from side by side open with RH connection:

LF left                                                     (a)
    & lead follower's RF rock R (RH push R)
RF right & maintain RH connection & RH rotate follower L    (1)
LF in slot behind follower & rotate L 180d &                (2)
    LH rotate follower L at waist
RH right & RH stop follower's rotation                      (3)

Side By Side Open To Follower's Free Left

From side by side open, leader's steps:

LF left point                                       (a)
RF slightly back                                    (1)
LF between follower's feet & RH push & pull         (2)
rotate L 180d & RF together                         (3)

(into perpendicular catch)

The follower executes a free 1.5 left.

The lead on (2) is almost entirely linear. It's somewhat counterintuitive but a linear lead is normally sufficient for the follower to start a left turn. The lead should be similar to a hesitation lead - push to lead the back rock on (a-1), then pull on (2) to lead forward movement and left turn.

Wrap To Wrap

Wraps are done in side by side position, meaning follower should be on the rail of the slot facing the same direction as the leader between 3 and 1 counts.

Leader's steps:

LF left                                             (a-1)
RF in place                                         (1)
    & RH rotate follower L
LF behind follower in slot                          (2)
    & LH rotate follower L at waist
    & RH trace follower's waist
RF forward                                          (3)
    & RH wrap around follower & stop rotation

Latin Hustle

From open, leader's steps:

LF back rock &
    LH lead follower forward to side by side open           (a-1)
LF together                                                 (2)
RF together & establish side by side with follower          (3)
    (RH connected to follower's back, LH free)

LF back rock                                                (a-1)
LF forward & rotate R 180d                                  (2)
RF together
    & swing both hands forward

LF back rock                                                (a-1)
    & swing both hands back
LF forward & rotate L 90d                                   (2)
RF together & LH palm to palm with follower                 (3)

LF back break                                               (a-1)
    & LH push away between partners
rotate R 90d & LF left                                      (2)
rotate R 90d & RF together                                  (3)

When starting from open, the first side by side open is different from all the other ones. It does not occur when starting latin hustle from closed.

From closed, leader's steps:

LF side rock &
    lead throwout                                           (a-1)
LF left
rotate R 90d & RF together &
    establish side by side with follower &
    swing both hands forward

(continue with third bar of latin hustle from open:)
LF back rock                                                (a-1)
    & swing both hands back
LF forward & rotate L 90d                                   (2)
RF together & LH palm to palm with follower                 (3)

Follower's steps are the same as in a cross body lead. The important thing is to not go into cross body lead position in a new slot but rather to remain in the original slot and arrange to be side by side with leader. It is mostly the leader's job to lead the side by side opens by moving into the side by side positions before the follower can close into XBL.

Side By Side Right - Both Turn

From side by side position with follower on right, in double HH, LH goes up and RH stretches out forward. The leader executes a half left and the follower executes a half right. Leader maintains LH connection throughout the figure, releasing RH when the follower starts turning on her (2).

Finishing position is side by side with follower on the left.

Side By Side Right - Both Free Turn

This is a variation of the connected both turn in which the leader also releases LH, and both partners have a free turn - leader to the left, follower to the right. This is similar to a free spot turn in rumba/cha cha.

Finishing position is side by side with follower on the left.

Side By Side Right - Follower's UAT Right

From side by side position with follower on right, leader uses RH to lead follower's UAT right, releasing LH. In this figure the leader does not turn.

Finishing position is side by side with follower on the left.

Side By Side Shoulder Slide

From side by side position with follower on left, with RH-LH connection, leader executes a half right and places follower's LH on his left shoulder.

The finishing position is halfway between side by side with follower on right and closed position. The next figure can be a pivot from closed.

Grapevine

Crosses behind are all on (3) count.

Leader's steps from closed:

LF side rock                (a-1)
    & rotate follower R with RH moderately while maintaining LH connection
LF left                     (2)
RF left crossed behind      (3)
    & rotate follower L with RH moderately

LF left                     (a)
RF left crossed in front    (1)
    & rotate follower R with RH moderately
LF left                     (2)
RF left crossed behind      (3)
    & rotate follower L with RH moderately

Ordinarily, follower winds right on (a) and rotates left on (1). Leader rotating the follower right on (1) is the lead for the follower to continue moving in a straight line rather than rotate left to finish XBL.

On (3) with feet crossed behind the follower naturally rotates left to be parallel with the leader (whereas on (1) the partners are more side by side). Hence leader on (3) rotates the follower left to assist with this.

The lead for grapevine is both a moderate rotation (open) for the follower and the leader moving in the direction of travel with momentum. Leader's movement is important because the follower needs to be staying slightly behind the leader throughout the figure.

Grapevine Cross Body Lead Exit

I haven't heard a clear explanation as to what is supposed to happen with the feet when the leader wants to stop moving left in the grapevine and do something else (such as a cross body lead to change direction).

As a leader, one way of stopping the sideways movement is to change footwork from grapevine, which starts with:

LF crossed behind RF        (a)
rock RF                     (1)

... to XBL, which starts with:

LF left                     (a)
rock RF                     (1)

Now, even though the difference between these two starting steps is on (a), when already in the grapevine LF will pretty much step in the same place on (a) regardless of whether the grapevine is continuing or transitioning to XBL, therefore the change will be where RF goes on (1). Specifically, the idea is to go from:

LF left                     (a)
RF left crossed in front    (1)

... to:

LF left                     (a)
rock RF                     (1)

Once RF is placed down right of LF, (2) and (3) steps can be the same as in XBL with LF crossing the slot and RF coming down on the opposite rail. The challenge with this transition is there is a good amount of inertia in RF which has to be fought (mentally) to put it down in place and not cross in front to continue the grapevine.

What RF in place on (1) accomplishes is it puts the leader behind the follower to execute the XBL, whereas in the grapevine the leader is ahead of the follower.

A slightly different way to perform grapevine to XBL transition is to execute (a) and (1) counts the same as in the grapevine, with RF crossing in front on (1), then on (2) put LF in the middle of the slot behind the follower to transition into XBL:

LF left                                     (a)
RF left crossed in front                    (1)
LF forward in slot & rotate L 90d           (2)
RF slightly back                            (3)

The challenge with this version is getting behind the follower on (1) but still rotating the follower on (2) to change her direction.

What I found helpful to do as a leader in the transition is to think about getting on the other rail of the slot on (2), thus rotating the follower 180d left to go back the other way, then waiting for (a) and executing the crossed behind rock with LF on (a-1). The idea is to get the follower rotated at the right time and allow her to do whatever she wants with her feet through the transition (as described below) and join her on (a-1) of the following bar.

As a follower, the important thing is to keep count and alternate feet. The XBL itself is done almost entirely in place (with rotation led by the leader). Exactly where the feet go during the XBL rotaion is not critical. The next important thing is a definitive LF forward on the next 1 count.

Grapevine Throwout

Grapevine can be ended with a throwout. Conceptually the stopping of sideways movement is the same as in XBL exit from grapevine, but instead of changing rails the leader basically stays put in the slot while the follower continues to travel and then rotates to face the leader.

Grapevine Throwout With Leader's Right

Since in throwout the leader can turn right after the follower exits closed hold, conceivably the same maneuver can be obtained when executing a throwout from grapevine.

Grapevine To Leader's Left To Side By SIde

This is a different exit from grapevine. At the end of grapevine, leader executes a half left turn as a follower would, placing follower's RH on his left shoulder and ending up in a side by side position with follower on the left.

The leader then executes a back rock on (a-1) and runs ahead of the follower with no connection on the opposite rail, at which point the partners are in the middle of a NY walk without connection.

Telemark

This is essentially a cross body lead that performs 360d of rotation.

Executing a grapevine prior to telemark helps get momentum for the telemark.

Diamond

From side by side catch, the leader transitions follower from his right arm into his left arm while rotating left 45d. The follower thus executes 3/4 left. The leader then moves with the follower right in this new slot, leading 1.5 left into perpendicular catch.

Once in perpendicular catch the leader executes a grapevine left, then transitions follower from right arm to left arm, into the follower's 1.5 left into perpendicular catch, and so on.

Diamond can also start from closed position, or from grapevine in which case the slot would not rotate but the leader will change rails.

While in the diamond the leader stretches left and right arms out to indicate the direction of the slot. This gives the follower a visual cue as to where to finish her turns.

Circle

Starts with LH to RH connection, as would be obtained at the end of LA walk.

Leader's steps from open:

LF back rock                                                (a-1)
LF forward                                                  (2)
RF forward/together & RH connect follower's waist           (3)

LF forward small                                            (a)
RF forward rotating right                                   (4)
LF forward rotating right & RH lead follower's right turn   (5)
RF back & connect LH to LH                                  (6)

Sliding Doors

There are several variations of the sliding doors figure. Any sliding doors figure involves the follower passing behind the leader and the leader completely releasing the follower at the beginning of such a pass.

In the simple version of sliding doors, in the middle of the pass leader and follower are both facing the same rail of the slot. Variations involve one or both partners turning while passing each other.

The figure can begin in either face to face open or perpendicular position.

Leader's steps, from handshake open:

LF back rock                                        (a-1)
LF forward & RH lead follower behind                (2)
rotate L 180d & catch follower's LH with LH &
    RF step                                         (3)

LF back rock in LH hold                             (a-1)
LF forward &
    LH lead follower's left 1.5 turns               (2)
rotate R 180d & RF forward &
    RH catch follower                               (3)

There is probably an easier version of sliding doors with just left/right passes, without follower's turns in the middle.

Pivot From Open

This is hustle's equivalent of swingout/lindy turn.

Leader's steps, from face to face open:

LF back rock                                                (a-1)
LF forward/left & rotate R toward follower                  (2)
RF forward between follower's feet                          (3)

rotate R 90d & LF left slightly                             (a)
rotate R 90d & RF forward slightly between follower's feet  (4)
LF back & LH push forward to separate follower              (5)
RF in place                                                 (6)

On (2-3) leader establishes closed hold with follower. Both LH and RH connections are necessary. LH hold should be ballroom style with palm vertical rather than swing style with palm horizontal.

(a-4) are rotating steps. Normal rotation is 180d total, though an overturned version also exists with 270d of total rotation.

From (3) to (4) there should be thigh to thigh contact between partners.

On (5) leader separates from follower, rotation should be completed by this point if doing the standard 180d of rotation. The follower exits in the opposite direction from start in the slot.

(6) is a filler step, nothing is going on.

Follower's footwork doesn't matter too much as long as timing is correct and feet alternate. Rotation is entirely controlled by the leader. The step on (5) should be a back step to separate from the leader.

Pivot From Closed

This is similar to a rock turn in tango.

Pivot from closed always takes an odd number of counts. 5 and 7 seem typical.

Leader's steps from closed:

LF back                                             (a)
RF forward/right in front of follower's LF          (1)
LF forward outside partner                          (2)
    & slide RF to follower's RF
rotate R & RF back                                  (3)
rotate R small & rock LF                            (4)
rotate R & rock RF back                             (5)

LF side point & lead follower's back rock           (a-1)

(4-5) can be repeated as (6-7) for the 7 count pivot.

Starting position can be perpendicular, face to face or side by side closed. Depending on the starting position, the step on (a) changes: in a face to face closed (i.e. at the end of fifth position breaks) (a) is LF together rather than back. In a side by side closed (a) is close to a full back rock. In perpendicular closed I imagine (a) is somewhere in between back and together.

The step on (1) always goes in front of follower's LF. This stops forward movement of the follower and initiates the pivot. Importantly this step must be in front of follower's LF, not follower's center or RF, to provide a smooth entry to the pivot.

The step on (2) should be outside partner (just left of follower). This stops follower's forward movement. If needed, just after LF steps on (2) the leader can slide RF to be adjacent to follower's RF, to make room for the follower to continue stepping with her LF.

Exit from pivot from closed is a leader's left point and follower's back rock done in perpendicular closed position.

Basket

This figure goes from side by side open to face to face open.

From side by side open, leader's steps:

LF left point                                       (a)
RF slightly back                                    (1)
LF between follower's feet & RH lead wrap           (2)
rotate L 180d & RF together                         (3)

LF left point                                       (a)
rock RF                                             (4)
LF forward & RH release follower & connect LH       (5)
rock RF                                             (6)

Leader performs 270d of rotation, starting on a rail and finishing in the slot. Follower performs a 1.5 left followed by a half right.

The lead on (2) is rotational, intended to wrap the follower into her left arm. This is unlike a free left turn from side by side open where the lead for the turn is close to linear. The lead for basket is a relatively large size circle in horizontal plane, going around the follower.

In the basket the follower travels around the leader on (a-4), in a curved trajectory, again unlike a free left turn from side by side open where the follower travels in the slot.

On (5-6) the leader establishes LH connection.

Leader's step on (2) should be between the follower's feet. It is important for the leader to not be late with this step, as this will throw off timing for the rest of the figure. Depending on how far apart the partners are at the beginning of the figure, the step on (2) may be forward/left or forward/right, and could be crossed in front.

Fifth Position Breaks

From face to face closed, leader's steps:

RF right                    (8)
LF back crossed behind      (a)
rock RF                     (1)
LF left                     (2)
RF back crossed behind      (a)
rock LF                     (3)
RF right                    (4)
LF back crossed behind      (a)
rock RF                     (5)
LF left                     (6)
RF back crossed behind      (a)
rock LF                     (7)
RF right                    (8)

Next figure can be a pivot from closed, in which case the steps will be:

LF together/left slightly   (a)
RF forward                  (1)
(rest of pivot)

Hip Check

Rib Chaser

This starts as an illusion turn, and at the end of it the leader rotates right 180d and places his LH (which holds follower's LH) on his left ribs. In this position the follower is to the back of the leader and to his right. Leader then reaches back/right with his RH and touches the follower on her right hip, which is the signal for the follower to rotate left 90d and execute a 1.5 left in this new direction. The leader can do a half left to end up on the rail of the new slot, or 1.5 left, and execute a perpendicular catch.